In this project you will work with 3D film-making (sound & vision). You will explore how to bring stereoscopic visuals onto the screen and ambisonic/ binaural/ surround sound into the cinematic experience in order to create an immersive audiovisual experience. During the project you will explore ways to create engaging 3D screen-based experiences and to produce sound material that enhances them.
This project is driven by the industrial development of digital stereoscopy and 3D technologies. Audiences are becoming increasingly familiar with these technologies, and there is a need for 3D and film professionals to embrace stereoscopic and ambisonic production techniques.
With technology available for the development and display of S3D material (stereoscopic three-dimensional), the industry requires new content and creative input. Film studios are starting to release more and more 3D films, and there is great potential for creating and developing 3D images and sounds that enable innovative cinematic experiences and are capable of evoking emotional responses. There is scope for digital artists and film-makers to take the challenge and creatively develop and experiment with 3D film and sound material.
S3D film combines two separate images, one for each eye (left & right), to convey the visual perception of depth and volume. S3D resembles the human ability of seeing the world as a three-dimensional environment, which contrasts with the visual processing of 2D information. S3D is based on the human capacity for transmitting depth and volume to the brain via stereoscopic vision, which is called Stereopsis. It could be argued that S3D is closer to human visual perception than 2D imagery, because in 2D the brain has to translate the position of the objects within the image and process the information to achieve an approximate mental model of the space, while in S3D this is done more intuitively. When the viewer is in front of a S3D film, the focus is normally placed on the screen. However, the viewer can also focus on the elements that are “in front” or “behind” the screen. In S3D the viewer can hover and selectively observe & explore the space.
The stereoscopic film techniques have been known since late 1890s. The first S3D film was screened utilising the red/green anaglyph technique in 1922. Anaglyph from the Greek word “ανάγλυφο (anáglyfo)” refers to the addition of another visual dimension to bring two perspectives (left & right) together to create volumes in space. Anaglyph is an early S3D technique which is still in use in production and for online platforms because it does not require a 3D-friendly screen or projector, the only requirement is a pair of cheap red – green glasses. New visualisation techniques for S3D content such as side-by-side format are used by 3D TV screens and projectors, and are gradually taking over the place that anaglyph once held. Anaglyph is still used by camera operators and stereographers in film production.
Surround sound (360°) is a crucial element in the cinematographic experience; without sound there are no tensions and the emotional response of the audience is limited. Although in any multichannel or surround sound experience there is a hot spot where the sound is optimal, all other spots also benefit from the spatialized distribution of sound. Since Walt Disney’s Fantasia (1940) artists and the cinematographic industry have worked with multichannel and stereo surround to offer a sonic experience that embraces the audience and distributes sound in the space in which it is experienced.
Aims and Objectives
As part of this project, you will:
- Explore the creative potential of 3D recording equipment & editing software
- Produce audiovisual 3D material based on these explorations
Project participants will:
- Acquire the technical skills (equipment, software) to produce 3D content
- Gain understanding of 3D perception to devise 3D narratives and scenarios
- Create audiovisual material that conveys the feeling of 3D environments
- Take initiative and responsibility for individual and group tasks
- An audiovisual 3D experience (video/sound approx 15 min.)
- Blog posts, comments and gathered resources (research undertaken)
- Documentation: final presentation, design/development/collaboration process
- Baudrillard, Jean. 1994. Simulacra and Simulation.
- Chion, Michel. 1990. Audio-Vision: Sound on Screen.
- Brewster, David. 1856. The Stereoscope.
- Matsuyama, Takashi et al. 2012. 3D video and its applications. London: Springer [electronic resource] Click here for full text
- Convergence, November 2013; 19 (4) con.sagepub.com/content/current
- Autodesk. 2008. Stereoscopic Filmmaking Whitepaper: The Business and Technology of Stereoscopic Filmmaking. download.autodesk.com/us/s3d/stereoscopic_whitepaper.pdf
- Du, Song-Pei, Shi-Min Hu and Ralph R. Martin. 2013. Changing Perspective in Stereoscopic Images.cg.cs.tsinghua.edu.cn/papers/TVCG_2013_stereo.pdf
3D Films – Can you tell which ones are filmed in 3D or converted during postproduction?
- Every Thing Will Be Fine, 2015 (Wim Wenders)
- Gravity, 2013 (Alfonso Cuaron) www.youtube.com/watch?v=OiTiKOy59o4
- Life of Pi, 2012 (Ang Lee) www.youtube.com/watch?v=bCMsvcQotAY
- Pina, 2011 (Wim Wenders) www.youtube.com/watch?v=CNuQVS7q7-A
- Alice in Wonderland, 2011 (Tim Burton) www.youtube.com/watch?v=rjRSDvLC4kw
- Hugo Cabaret, 2011 (Martin Scorsese) www.youtube.com/watch?v=iQNkETGfA6k
- Avatar, 2009 (James Cameron) www.youtube.com/watch?v=g7ps5TWzJ-o
- Dial-M-for-Murder, remastered 2013 (Alfred Hitchcock, original 1953) www.theguardian.com/film/2013/jul/28/dial-m-for-murder-3d-review
* Meetings with supervisor Rocio von Jungenfeld: Wednesdays 13:30-14:30, AH
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